“And in the days of those kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed; nor shall the kingdom be left to another people; it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, but it shall stand for ever.” Daniel 2:44
The borders of Israel are the subject of heated international debate, but a look at prophetic literature shows a clear and surprising picture: the Messianic age will feature an Israel that encompasses the entire world. Haters of Israel can interpret this in a negative light, but the truth is a utopian vision of universal brotherhood.
The borders of Israel cannot be described in absolute terms because they have changed frequently. Rabbi Yitzchak Ginsburgh, head of the Gal Eini religious Zionist movement, taught that there were actually three different sets of borders described in the Bible and one that came later in history. The final set of borders is described in prophetic teachings.
The borders promised to Abraham in the book of Genesis, which extended from the river of Egypt to the Euphrates (Genesis 15:18-21). This was much larger than any of the other descriptions in the Bible.
The borders described in the Bible before the Israelites entered the land (Numbers 34:6).
The borders of those Jews who returned from the Babylonian exile, which were substantially smaller than before the exile.
Rabbi Avraham Arieh Trugman, director of Ohr Chadash Torah Institute, explained to Breaking Israel News that these changes are because Israel’s borders are not firmly established or part of a political or military process. Israel’s borders are part of a spiritual process, even in modern times.
“Israel’s borders are flexible because our merit to be here is dependent on our actions and our relationship with God,” he said. “In the last 68 years of modern Israel’s history, the border has changed many times, describing a developing relationship.”
The final borders of Israel are described in the Pesikta Rabbati, a collection of homilies and midrash (oral teachings) compiled by Torah sages in the ninth century CE. Unlike the previous four descriptions of the borders of Israel, the final prophetic description does not describe geographic boundaries specific to Israel, but a unifying global spiritual process.